National Endowment for the Humanities   Adelphi Univeristy
2022 NEH Summer Institute Opportunity

Worlds in Collision:

Nahua and Spanish Pictorial Histories and Annals in 16th-Century Mexico

A National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute
for 26 College Faculty participants
to be held at Adelphi University June 9 to June 30, 2022
Download complete copy of this website in PDF format.


Welcome Letter from Project Directors

Institute Daily Schedule
Institute Visiting Scholars
Intellectual Grounding
Lodging and Institute Stipend
How to Apply
Online Mexican Codices
Participant Eligibility
Principles of Civility
Contact Us

Project Co-Directors:
Dr. Laraine Fletcher
Adelphi University, Anthropology, emerita,

Dr. George Scheper
Senior Lecturer, Advanced Academic Programs, The Johns Hopkins University,

Project Manager:
Mary Cortina
Director, Office of Research and Sponsored Programs

Downloadable complete hyperlinked PDF file.

16th & 17th Century Mexican Pictorial Histories:
A Hyperlinked Finding List

Laraine A, Fletcher
(Professor emerita, Anthropology, Adelphi University)
George L. Scheper
(Senior Lecturer, Johns Hopkins University, Advanced Academic Programs)

* * * * *

Please Note: the following selective Finding List is in no way intended as a bibliographical document. It is intended solely as a jump-starter listing the URL's for major collections and for major and lesser known individual codices that have been made available for online consultation. The editors have tried to ensure the ongoing efficacy of the URL's as of the spring of 2019, but we realize that these are often in flux, and need perpetual updating, as the need may arise.

A Directory of Online Mexican Codices

George Scheper & Laraine Fletcher, eds.

For general searching, consult the following:
Biblioteca Digital Mexicana A.C.
Codices de Mexico — INAH
FAMSI - Codices
Les Manuscrits Mexicains de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France [BNF]
The Mapas Project (indigenous-authored pictorial manuscripts), Stephanie Wood, editor
Early Nahuatl Library (indigenous-authored alphabetic manuscripts), Stephanie Wood, editor [includes digitized facsimile pages of Florentine Codex, Book 12, with Lockhart's transcriptions of the Nahuatl and Spanish, translation of the Nahuatl%5D

Digital Resources for the Study of Prehispanic Central Mexico, Compiled by William Ringle, August, 2011. Last updated Sept. 5, 2019,

Individual Codices

Codices Mediated by Friars:

Sahagún, Florentine Codex — [MS Med. Palat. 220] Medicea Laurenziana Library, Florence
Sahagún, Primeros Memoriales — Real Biblioteca, Madrid
Diego Duran, Historia de las Indias — Spanish text, without Atlas of prints:
Diego Duran, Historia de las Indias — Atlas of Prints
Digitization by Univ. Autónomo Nuevo Leone (with UANL logo on each page):
Histoyre du Mechique: Manuscrit Français inédit du XVIe Siecle
BNF — MS Français 19031 — fols. 79- 88
[ Bound with Fragments d'André THEVET sur les Indes occidentales et sur le Mexique. Fragments de l'Histoire naturelle et générale des Indes : Livre XV, complet (fol. 1-12) ; Fin du livre XVIII (fol. 13-14) ; Fragments de divers livres (fol. 17-42) ; — Livre XVII, incomplet de la fin (fol. 43-52 et 15-16) ; Livres XII et XIII, avec lacune dans le livre XIII, etc… ] 19031?rk=42918;4
“Histoyre du Mechique, Manuscrit Français inédit du XVIe Siecle”, edited with an Introduction by Édouard de Jonghe. Journal de la Société des Américanistes, Nouvelle Série, Vol. 2 (1905), pp. 1-41.
History of the Mexicans as Told by Their Paintings / Historia de los Mexicanos por sus pinturas [possibly by Andrés de Olmos] Trans. and edited by Henry Phillips Jr. [as "Codex Ramirez"], Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 21, No. 116 (Jun., 1884), pp. 616-651.
The same, as newly edited by Alec Christensen, on the FAMSI website:

Nahua Pictorial Histories

Codex Botorini [Tira de la Peregrinacion] — Museo Nacional de Antropología
Mapa de Sigüenza — INAH/ Biblioteca Nacional, Mexico
Codex Aubin [Codex of 1576] — British Museum, London:
Codex Aubin / Códice Aubin 1576 / Códice de 1576 / Historia de la nación mexicana / Histoire mexicaine
Another Copy:
[Codex Aubin / Codex of 1576] listed as Histoire de la Nation mexicaine [MS Mexicain 35- 36] — BNF 35?rk=21459;2
A later copy:
Codex Aubin — Copy (made between 1775 and 1825) — Princeton Univ., Garrett Library: - page/10/mode/2up
Histoire mexicaine depuis 1221 jusqu'en 1594 [MS Mexicain 40] — BNF
Codex Mexicanus — [MS Mexicain 23-24] — BNF
[Contient l'histoire des Mexicains depuis leur départ d'Aztlan jusqu'en 1590 (1ère et 2ème partie). Manuscrit original. Copies];2
Also downloadable at:
Fragment de l'histoire des anciens Mexicains — [MS Mexicain 85] — BNF 20
Legend of the Suns [Leyenda de los Soles] — see "Paul Kockelman, Legend of the Suns: Reproducing the Production of a Nahuatl Text" [Commentary, Text and Translation] PDFs/Legend of the Suns.pdf
Codex Cozcatzin [MS Mexicain 41-45] — BNF 22
Codex Azcatítlan [Histoire mexicaine], MS Mexicain 59-64 – BNF
Codex Tovar - John Carter Brown Library [= Codex Ramirez in Museo Nacional de Antropología]
Tovar Historical section:
Tovar Calendar section:
Codex Ramirez — Museo Nacional de Antropología [= Codex Tovar in J. Carter Brown Library]
French translation published as
Manuscript Ramirez/ Histoire de L'Origine des Indiens qui Habitent La Nouvelle Espagne Selon Leurs Traditions, ed. D. Charnay. Paris, 1903.
Downloadable from BNF:;2
Also downloadable from Harvard Library:;view=1up;seq=7
Lienzo de Tlaxcala — Austin, Univ. of Texas fragment
The Selden Roll — MS. Arch. Selden. A. 72 (3) Bodleian Library - /?p=c+6,t+MSMex.,rsrs+0,rsps+50,fa+,so+ox%3Asort%5Easc,scids+,pid+75a8f3db-69d3-4bef-bfc5-c61a55562114,vi+
Tira de Tepechpan [Mexicain 13-14] — BNF 20?rk=85837;2

Magliabechiano Group

Codex Magliabechiano CL. XIII.3 (B. R. 232) — Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence
Facsmile scans from Graz:


Codex Borbonicus — Bibliothéque Du Palais Bourbon
Facsmile scan from Graz:

Codex Telleriano-Ramensis — [MS Mexicain 385] — BNF;2
Scan from facsmile: Codex Telleriano-Remensis (Loubat 1901), Universitätsbibliothek Rostock:
Codex Vaticanus 3738 (Cod. Vat. A, Cod. Ríos) — Vatican Libr.
[An Italian reproduction of Codex Telleriano-Ramensis ]
Facsmile scan from Graz:
Aubin Tonalamatl [listed in BNF as Calendrier religieux et divinatoire, servant à la fois de rituel et de diurnal pour la célébration] MS Mexicain 18 - 19 — BNF;0
Note: MS was in BNF and privately removed to Mexico and entrusted to the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH).
Also viewable at:
Codex Ixtlilxochitl [a tonlamatl] — [MS Mexicain 65-71] — BNF Ixtlilxochitl?rk=21459;2

Borgia Group

Codex Borgia (Cod. Borg. Messicano 1) — Vatican Libr.
Scan from Vatican Library:
Facsmile scans from Graz:
Codex Fejérváry-Mayer — Museum of the City of Liverpool
Facsmile scans from Graz:
Codex Vaticanus 3773 (Codex Vaticanus B) — Vatican Libr.
Facsmile scans from Graz:
Another facsimile edition:
Codex Vaticanus 3773 B (Loubat 1900) Universitätsbibliothek Rostock: 3773/thumbs0.html
Codex Cospi (Calendario Messicano, Cod. 4093) — Bologna
Facsmile scans from Graz:
Another facsimile edition:
Codex Cospi (Loubat 1898) Universitätsbibliothek Rostock:
Codex Laud — [MS Laud Misc. 678] — Digital Bodleian - Bodleian Library, Oxford
Scans from the Bodleian: - /?p=c+0,t+,rsrs+0,rsps+10,fa+,so+ox%3Asort%5Easc,scids+,pid+7f3d2646-088e-4686-87a6-2c2cf20f413e,vi+c226ffff-b11c-4aa5-91b1-3ed04ae8cd5c
Digitization by Univ. of Utah Library:

Pictorial Histories, Tribute Books, Historical Maps

Codex Mendoza [MS. Arch. Selden. A. 1] — Digital Bodleian - Bodleian Library,t+Codex%20Mendoza%20MS.%20Arch.%20Selden.%20A.%201,rsrs+0,rsps+10,fa+,so+ox%3Asort%5Easc,scids+,pid+2fea788e-2aa2-4f08-b6d9-648c00486220,vi+
Matricula de Tributos [Codex Moctezuma] — INAH
Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca — [MS Mexicain 46-58] — BNF
Mapa de Cuauhtinchan 2 [MC2] — privately owned
Image downloadable at: - imgrc=0QZNJj92jlMsBM:
Mapa de Cuauhtinchan 3 — INAH
Mapa de Cuauhtinchan 4 — INAH
Mapa de Coatlichan [Coatlinchan] — INAH
Mapa Xolotl — [MS Mexicain 1] listed as "document sans titre" — BNF
Untitled Map, [MS Mexicain 2], listed as "document sans titre" — BNF
Untitled Map, [MS Mexicain 3], listed as "document sans titre" — BNF
Mapa Tlotzin — BNF
Mapa Quinatzin (1770) [MS Mexicain 396] — BNF quinatzin
Another copy [MS Mexicain 12 bis]: — BNF quinatzin?rk=21459;2
Untitled Document [MS Mexicain 4 -10; cover + 7 pages of pictorial map] — BNF
Codex en Cruz [MS Mexicain 90(2) — listed as “Album Cruz”] — BNF
Lienzo de Coixtlahuaca — INAH
Códice Totomixlahuaca [or Códice CONDUMEX] — Centro de Estudios de Historia de México
Codex Quetzalecatzin [also called the Mapa de Ecatepec-Huitziltepec] — LOC
Mapa de Santa Cruz [Map of Mexico City, 1555] — Uppsala University Library
Codex procès de Cuauhtitlan (8 Avril 1568) MS Mexicain 31 — BNF
Libro de tributos de San Pablo Teocaltitlan. MS Mex 376 — BNF 22
Codex Vergara [document cadastral] MS Mexicain 37-39 — BNF 22

Testerian MSS

Catecismo Testeriano [1524] — Centro de Estudios de Historia de México
Testeriano 1 [MS Mexicain 76] — BNF
Testeriano 3 [Ms Mexicain 78] — BNF
Testeriano 4 [MS Mexicain 399] — BNF

Works Consulted

Berdan, Frances and Patricia Anwalt. The Essential Mendoza Codex. University of California, 1997.

Berdan, Frances, Aztec Archaeology and Ethnohistory (Cambridge World Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Conquest of New Spain, trans. J.M. Cohen. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1985.

Boone, E.H. Painted Books and Indigenous Knowledge in Mesoamerica. Tulane: Middle American Research Institute, 2005.

Boone, Elizabeth H. Stories In Stories in Red and Black. Austin: University of Texas Press. Scala Publishers, Ltd. and Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2012.

Boone, Elizabeth Hill and Walter D. Mignolo, eds. Writing Without Words. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1994.

Brian, Amber, B. Benton and P. García Loaeza (eds. and trans.), The Native Conquistador: Alva Ixtlilxochitl’s Account of the Conquest of New Spain. Penn State University Press, 2015.

Brienen, Rebecca P. and M. A. Jackson (eds.), Invasion and Transformation: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Conquest of Mexico. University of Colorado Press, 2008.

Byland, John and John Pohl. In the Realm of 8 Deer. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

Carrasco, Davíd and Scott Sessions, eds. Cave, City, and Eagle’s Nest: An Interpretive Journey through the Mapa de Cuauhtinchan No. 2. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico. 2007.

Clendinnen, Inga, Aztecs. Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Codex Bodley: A Painted Chronicle from the Mixtec Highlands, Mexico, by Maarten Jansen and Gabina Aurora Perez Jimenez. Treasures from the Bodleian Library, I. Oxford: Bodleian Library, Oxford University, 2005.

Codex Borgia, The. Eds. Gisele Kiza and Alan Rodgers, with a New Introduction and Commentary by Bruce E. Byland. NY: Dover Publications, 1993.

Codex Nuttall, ed. Zelia Nuttall. NY: Dover Publications, 1975.

Coe, Michael. Breaking the Maya Code. London: Thames and Hudson, 1992,1999.

Cortés Hernán, Letters from Mexico (1519-1526), trans. Anthony Pagden, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1986.

Dibble, Charles and Arthur Anderson. Floretine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain. Santa Fe: SAR/University of Utah 1955-82.

Fields, Virgina M., John M. D. Pohl, and Victoria I. Lyall, eds. Children of the Plumed Serpent. London: Scala Publishers, Ltd. and Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2012.

Gruzinski, Serge, The Conquest of Mexico. Polity Press, 1993.

Hassig, Ross, Mexico and the Spanish Conquest, 2nd ed. University of Oklahoma Press, 2006.

las Casas, Fray Bartolomé de, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, tans. N. Griffen, introd. A. Pagden. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1992

Leibsohn, Dana. Script and Glyph: Prehispanic History, Colonial Bookmaking and the Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca. Washington: D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. 2009.

León-Portilla, Miguel, Bernardino de Sahagún: First Anthropologist. University of Oklahoma Press, 2002.

León-Portilla, Miguel, ed. Fifteen Poets of the Aztec World. University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Leon-Portilla, Miguel, ed. The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. Forword by J. Jorge Klor de Alva. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.

León-Portilla, Miguel, The Aztec Image of Self and Society: An Introduction to Nahua Culture. University of Utah Press, 1992.

Lockhart, James, ed. and trans. We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico. Wipf & Stock Publishers. 1993.

Marcus, Joyce. Mesoamerican Writing Systems: Propaganda, Myth, and History in Four Ancient Civilizations. Princeton University Press, 1992

Mundy, Barbara E. The Death of Aztec Tenochtitlan, The Life of Mexico City. University of Texas Press, 2015.

Nicholson, H.B. and Eloise Quiñones-Keber, eds. Mixteca-Puebla. Culver City, California: Labarinthos, 1994.

Quiñones Keber, Eloise. Codex Telleriano-Ramensis: Ritual, Divination, and History in a Pictorial Aztec Manuscript. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.

Restall, Matthew, When Montezuma Met Cortés: The True Story of the Meeting that Changed History. ECCO An Imprint of Harper Collins Publishers, 2018.

Robertson, Donald. Mexican Manuscript Painting of the Early Colonial Period (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1959).

Ruiz Medrano, Ethelia. México´s Indigenous Communities: Their Lands and Histories, 1500 to 2010. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2011.

Sahagún, Fray Bernardoino de. Primeros Memoriales. Facsmilie Edition. Photographed by Ferdinand Anders. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

Schroeder Susan, ed. The Conquest All Over Again: Nahuas and Zapotecs Thinking, Writing, and Painting Spanish Colonialism. Academic Press, 2011.

Spores, Ronald. The Mixtecs in Ancient and Colonial Times. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.

Todorov, Tzvetan, The Conquest of America: The Question of the Other. Harper & Row, 1984.

Townsend, Camilla, Annals of Native America: How the Nahuas of Colonial Mexico Kept Their History Alive. Oxford University Press, 2017.

Townsend, Richard. The Aztecs. London: Thames and Hudson, 2009.

Williams, Robert Lloyd. Lord Eight Wind of Suchhixtlan and the Heroes of Ancient Oaxaca. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009.

Williams, Robert Lloyd. The Complete Codex Zouche-Nuttall: Mixtec Lineage Histories and Political Biographies. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2013.

Wood Stephanie and Amos Megged, eds. Mesoamerican Memory: Enduring Systems of Remembrance. Norman: University of Oklahoma, 2012.

Wood, Stephanie, Transcending Conquest: Nahua Views of Spanish Colonial Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press, 2003.

“Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this program do not necessarily represent those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.”